7  Amount of emissions released by fuel burn



7.2 When to use the input?

This input is recommended for a wide use in assessments that focus on the assessment of environmental impact from the burning of fuel at any stage of the flight.


The Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP), a technical committee of the ICAO Council, recommends the use a conversion factor of 3.16 g of CO2 per gram of Jet A. The 3.16 value can be found in ICAO Doc 9889, 1st edition, 2011, and other documents.

However, in Europe, as early as 2009, Commission Decision 2009/339/EC indicated an emission factor of 3.15 for the mass conversion from Jet A to CO2 for the period after January 2021.

In view of the above, emission factor 3.15 should continue to be used in SESAR 2020, for the sake of internal consistency within the programme, unless the EU ETS decides to move to 3.16. Factor 3.16 should be used when the evaluation concerns comparisons with studies carried out within the ICAO framework or using the factor recommended by ICAO, in order to ensure external consistency.[1]

7.4 Other possible sources

  • European Aviation Environmental Report Series[2] in its latest 2022 edition shows the aviation sector has taken steps to address environmental challenges but also that more decisive actions are needed. In particular the latest trends in aircraft engine emissions can be checked in section 3.2. of the document.

  • European Environment Agency (2019), EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019[3] provides values for emission factors and fuel consumption in different phases of flight – including taxiing – for different aircraft types, using three different levels of accuracy and complexity, in section 1.A.3.a of the document.

  • ICAO Aircraft Engine Emissions Databank, available at EASA website contains information on exhaust emissions of production aircraft engines, covering engine types which emissions are regulated, namely turbojet and turbofan engines with a static thrust greater than 26.7 kilonewtons.

  • Swiss Federal Office of Civil Aviation, Aircraft Engine Emissions[4] presents a measurement and calculation methodology for aircraft piston engine emissions in order to improve aviation emission inventories, as developed by FOCA.

  • Swedish Defence Research Agency[5] holds a database of emission indices of NOx, HC and CO, with corresponding fuel flows for turboprop engines.

7.6 References

SESAR 2020, SESAR 2020 Environment Impact Assessment Guidance Del: 4.0.080.
EUROCONTROL, EASA, EU, “European Aviation Environmental Report 2022,” Sep. 2022 [Online]. Available: https://www.eurocontrol.int/publication/european-aviation-environmental-report-2022
European Environment Agency, EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2019,” 2019 [Online]. Available: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2019
Swiss Federal Office of Civil Aviation, “Aircraft Engine Emissions [Online]. Available: https://www.bazl.admin.ch/bazl/en/home.html
Swedish Defence Research Agency, “The Environmental Impact of Aircraft [Online]. Available: https://www.foi.se/en/foi/research/aeronautics-and-space-issues/environmental-impact-of-aircraft.html